Examination (National Level Entrance Exam)
Unit : 1
Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic
Measurement in chemistry (significant figures, SI
unit, Dimensional analysis). Chemical classification of matter (mixtures,
compounds and elements and purification). Law of chemical combination and
Dalton's Atomic theory. Atomic Mass (mole concept, determination of chemical
formulae). Chemical equation (balancing of chemical equation and calculations
using chemical equations).
Unit : 2
their Occurrence and Extraction
Earth as a source of elements, elements in biology,
Elements in sea, extraction of metals (metallurgical process, production of
concentrated ore, production of metals and their purification). Mineral wealth
of India. Qualitative test of metals.
Unit : 3
Gaseous state (measurable properties of gases,
Boyle's Law, Charles' Law and absolute scale of temperature, Avogadro's
hypothesis, ideal gas equation, Dalton's law of partial pressure. Kinetic
molecular theory of gases (the microscopic model of gas, deviation from ideal
behaviour). The solid state (classification of solids, X-ray studies of crystal
lattices and unit cells, packing of constituent particles in crystals). Liquid
state (Properties of liquids, Vapour pressure, Surface Tension, Viscosity).
Unit : 4
Constituents of the atom (Discovery of electron,
nuclear model of the atom). Electronic structure of atoms (nature of light and
electromagnetic waves, atomic spectra, Bohr's model of Hydrogen atom, Quantum
mechanical model of the atom, electronic configurations of atoms, Aufbau
Unit : 5
Families - Periodic Properties
Mendeleev's Periodic Table, Modern Periodic Law, Types
of elements (Representative elements-s & p block elements, inner transition
elements-d-block elements, inner transition elements-f-block elements). Periodic
trends in properties. (Ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic radii,
valencey, periodicity in properties of compounds).
Unit : 6
and Molecular Structure
Chemical bonds and Lewis structure, shapes of
molecules (VSEPR Theory). Quantum theory of the covalent bond (Hydrogen and some
other simple molecules, carbon compounds, hybridization, Boron and Beryllium
compounds). Coordinate covalent bond (Ionic bond as an extreme case of polar
covalent bond, ionic character of molecules and polar molecules. Bonding in
solid state (lonic, molecular and covalent solids, metals). Hydrogen bond,
Unit : 7
and its Compounds
Elemental carbon, Carbon compounds, Inorganic
compounds of carbon (Oxides of carbon, halides, carbides). Organic compounds,
Nomenclature of organic compounds (Hydrocarbons, functional groups). Some common
organic compounds (Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones,
Halides, Acids, nitro compounds and Amines).
Unit : 8
Energy changes during a chemical reaction. Internal
energy and Enthalpy (Internal energy and Enthalpy changes), Origin of Enthalpy
changes in a reaction, Hess's Law of constant heat summation, numericals based
on these concepts. Heats of reactions (heat of neutralization, heat of
combusion, heat of fusion and vapourization). Sources of energy (Conservation of
energy sources and identification of alternative sources, pollution associated
with consumption of fuels. The sun as the primary source). What decides the
direction of a spontaneous change in a chemical reaction? (an elementary idea of
free energy change). Why energy crisis if energy is conserved in nature?
Unit : 9
Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid,
liquid-gas equilibrium involving dissolution of solid in liquids, gases in
liquids, general characteristics of equilibrium inolving physical processes).
Equilibria involving chemical systems (the law of chemical equilibrium, the
magnitude of the equilibrium constant, numerical problems). Effect of changing
conditions of systems at equilibrium (change of concentration, change of
temperature, effect of catalyst-Le Chateliar's principle). Equilibria involving
ions (ionization of electrolytes, weak and strong electrolytes, acid-base
equilibrium, various concepts of acids and bases, ionization of water, pH,
solubility product, numericals based on these concepts).
Unit : 10
Oxidation and reduction as an electron transfer
process. Redox reactions in aqueous solutions-electrochemical cells. EMF of a
galvanic cell. Dependence of EMF on concentration and temperature (Nernst
equation and numerical problems based on it). Electrolysis, Oxidation numbers
(rules for assigning oxidation number, redox reactions in terms of oxidation
number and nomenclature). Balancing of oxidation-reduction equations.
Unit : 11
of Chemical Reactions
Rates of reaction. Instantaneous rate of reaction and
order of reaction. Factors affecting rates of reactions (factors affecting rate
of collisions encountered between the reactant molecules, effect of temperature
on the reaction rate, concept of activation energy, catalysts). Effect of light
on rates of reactions. Elementary reactions as steps to more complex reactions.
How fast are chemical reactions?
Unit : 12
(Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen) Hydrogen (position in
periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, properties, reactions and uses). Oxygen
(occurrence, preparation, properties and reactions, uses, simple oxids; ozone).
Water and hydrogen peroxide (structure of water molecule and its aggregates,
physical and chemical properties of water, hard and soft water, water softening,
hydrogen peroxide, preparation, properties, structure and uses). Nitrogen
(preparation properties, uses, compounds of Nitrogen - Ammonia, Oxides of
Nitrogen, Nitric Acid - preparation, properties and uses).
Unit : 13
of Non-metals II
(Boron, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, halogens and the
noble gases). Boron (occurrence, isolation, physical and chemical properties,
borax and boric acid, uses of boron and its compounds). Silicon (occurrence,
preparation and properties, oxides and oxyacids of phosphorus, chemical
fertilizers). Sulphur (occurrence and extraction, properties and reactions,
oxides: Sulphuric acid-preparation properties and uses, sodium thiosulphate).
Halogens (occurrence, preparation, properties, hydrogen halides, uses of
halogens). Nobel gases (discovery, occurrence and isolation, physical
properties, chemistry of noble gases and their uses).
Unit : 14
of Lighter Metals
Sodium and Potassium (occurrence and extraction,
properties and uses, important compounds - Nacl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCL KOH).
Magnesium and Calcium (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, important
compounds - MgCl2, Mg SO4, CaO, Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, CaSO4, plaster of paris).
Aluminium (occurrence, extraction, properties and uses, compounds-AICI3, alums).
Cement. Biological role of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium.
Unit : 15
of Heavier Metals
Iron (occurrence and extraction, compounds of iron,
oxides, halides, sulphides, sulphate, alloy and steel. Copper, silver, and gold
(occurrence and extractions, properties and uses, compounds-sulphides, halides
and sulphates, photography). Zinc and Mercury (occurrence and extraction,
properties and uses, compounds-oxides, halides; sulphides and sulphates). Tin
and Lead (occurrence and extraction, properties and uses, compounds - oxides,
Unit : 16
and Shape(s) of Hydrocarbons
Alkanes (structure, isomerism, conformation). Stereo
isomerism and chirality (origin of chirality, optical relation and racemic
mixture). Alkenes (isomerism including cis-transisomers). Alkynes. Arenes
(structure of benzene, resonance structure, isomerism in arenes).
Unit : 17
and Properties of Hydrocarbons
Sources of hydrocarbons (origin and composition of
coal and petroleum; Hydrocarbons from coal and petroleum, cracking and refining,
quality of gasoline-octane number, gasoline additives). Laboratory preparation
of alkanes (preparation from unsaturated hydrocarbons, alkyl halides and
carboxylic acids). Laboratory preparation of alkenes (preparation from alcohols,
alkyl halides). Laboratory preparation of alkynes (preparation from calcium
carbide and acetylene). Physical properties of alkanes (boiling and melting
points, solubility and density). Reactions of hydrocarbons (oxidation, addition,
substitution and miscellaneous reactions).
Unit : 18
and Characterisation of Organic Compounds
Purification (crystallisation, sublimation,
distillation, differential extraction, chromatography) Qualitative analysis
(analysis of nitrogen sulphur, phosphorus and halogens). Quantitative analysis
(estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus and
oxygen). Determination of molecular mass (Victor Mayer's method, volumetric
method). Calculation of emperical formula and molecular formula. Numerical
problems in organic quantitative analysis, modern methods of structure
Unit : 19
Molecules of Life
The cell. Carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disacharides
and polysacharides). Protein (amino acids, peptide bond, structure of proteins,
tertiary structure of proteins and denaturation, enzymes). Nuclei acids
(structure, the double helix, biological function of nucleic acid), viruses,
Unit : 20
Structure and Chemical Bonding
Atoms; dual nature of matter and radiation. The
Uncertainty principle. Orbitals and Quantum numbers Shapes of orbitals.
Electronic configuration of atoms. Molecules: Molecular orbital method.
Hybridisation, Dipole moment and structure of molecules.
Unit : 21
Structure of simple ionic compounds. Close-packed
structures. Ionic-radii, Silictes (elementary ideas). Imperfection in solids
(point defects only). Properties of solids. Amorphous solids.
Unit : 22
of solutions, Vapour-pressure of solutions and Raoult's law. Colligative
properties. Non-ideal solutions and abnormal molecular masses. Mole concept -
stoichemistry, volumetric analysis-concentration unit.
Unit : 23
First law of thermodynamics: Internal energy,
Enthalphy, application of first law of thermodynamics. Second law of
thermodynamics: Entropy, Free Energy, Spontaneity of a chemical reaction, free
energy change and chemical equilibrium, free energy as energy available for
useful work. Third law of thermodynamics.
Unit : 24
Electrolytic conduction. Voltaic cell, Electrode
potential and Electromotive force, Gibb's free energy and cell potential.
Electrode potential and Electrolysis. Primary cells including fuel cell.
Unit : 25
Rate expression. Order of a reaction (with suitable
examples). Units of rates and specific rate constant. Order of reaction and
concentration. (study will be confined to first order only). Temperature
dependance of rate constant-Fast reactions (only elementary idea). Mechanism of
reaction (only elementary idea). Photochemical reactions.
Unit : 26
Chemistry Based on Functional Group-I
(Halides and Hydroxy compounds). Nomenclature of
compounds containing halogen atoms and hydroxyl groups : haloalkanes,
haloarenes; alcohols and phenols. Correlation of physical properties and uses.
Preparation, properties and uses of following: Polyhalogen compounds :
Chloroform, Idoform Polhydric compounds. Ethane 1,2-diol; Propane-1,2,3 triol.
Structure and reactivity-(a) Induction effect, (b) Mesomeric effect, (c)
Electrophiles and Nucleophiles, (d) Types of organic reaction.
Unit : 27
Chemistry Based on Functional Group-II
(Ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and
their derivatives). Nomenclature of ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids
and their derivatives. (acylhalides, acid anhydrides, amides and esters).
General methods of preparation, correlation of physical properties with their
structures, chemical properties and uses. (Note : Specific compounds should not
be stressed for the purpose of evaluation)
Unit : 28
Chemistry Based on Functional Group-III
(Cyanides, isocyanides, nitrocompounds and amines)
Nomenclature of cyanides and isocynides; nitro compounds and amines and their
methods of preparation; correlation of physical properties with structure,
chemical reactions and uses.
Unit : 29
of Representative Elements
Periodic properties - Trends in groups and periods (a)
Oxides-nature (b) Halides-melting points (c) Carbonates and Sulphates -
solubility. The chemistry of s and p block elements, electronic configuration,
general characteristic properties and oxidation states of the following:- Group
1 elements-Alkali metals Group 2 elements-Alkaline earth metals Group 13
elements-Boron family Group 14 elements-Carbon family Group 15 elements-Nitrogen
family Group 16 elements-Oxygen family Group 17 elements-Halogen family Group 18
elements-Nobel gases and Hydrogen.
Unit : 30
Metals including Lanthanides
Electronic configuration : General characteristic
properties, oxidation states of transition metals. First row transition metals
and general properties of their compounds-oxides, halides and sulphides. General
properties of second and third row transition elements (Groupwise discussion).
Preparation of Potassium dichromate, Potassium permanganate. Inner transition
elements : General discussion with special reference to oxidation states and
Unit : 31
Chemistry and Organo Metallics
Coordination compounds. Nomenclature : Isomerism in
coordination compounds; Bonding in coordination compounds; Stability of
coordination compounds; application of coordination compounds; Compounds
containing metal-carbon bond; Application of organometallics.
Unit : 32
Nature of radiation from radioactive substances.
Nuclear structure and nuclear properties. Nuclear reactions; Radioactive
disintegration series; Artificial transmutation of elements; Nuclear fission and
Nuclear fusion : Isotopes and their uses; Radio carbon-dating; Synthetic
Unit : 33
and Natural Polymers
Classification of Polymers, natural and synthetic
polymers (with stress on their general methods of preparation) and important
uses of the following: Teflon, PVC, Polystyrene, Nylon-66, Terylene.
Environmental pollution - pollutant - services - check and alternatives.
Unit : 34
Surfaces : Adsorption Colloids-(Preparation and
general properties). Emulsions, Micelles. Catalysis : Homogeneous and
heterogeneous, structure of catalyst.
Unit : 35
Carbohydrates : Monosaccharides, Disaccharides,
Polysaccharides. Amino Acids and Peptides-Structure and classification. Proteins
and Enzymes - Structure of Proteins, Role of enzymes. Nucleic Acids - DNA and
RNA Biological functions of Nucleic acids - Protein synthesis and replication.
Lipids - Structure, membranes and their functions.
Unit : 36
of Biological Process
Carbohydrates and their Metabolism, Blood, haemoglobin
and respiration; Immune system; Vitamins and hormones. Simple idea of chemical
Unit : 37
Dyes, Chemicals in medicines, Rocket propellants.
(Structural formulae non-evaluative)