Maharashtra State Eligibility Test (SET)-2010
Syllabus & Sample Questions :
Paper-II and Paper-III (Part-A & B)
Definition principles and scope of Environmental Science. Earth
Man and Environment, Ecosystems, Pathways in Ecosystems. Physico-chemical
and Biological factors in the Environment. Geographical
classification and zones. Structure and
composition of atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Mass and
Energy transfer across the various interfaces,
material balance. First and Second law of thermodynamics,
heat transfer processes. Scale of Meteorology, pressure, temperature, precipitation,
humidity, radiation and wind. Atmospheric
stability, inversions and mixing heights, wind roses. Natural
resources, conservation and sustainable development.
Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry : Stochiometry,
Gibbs’ energy, Chemical potential, chemical
equilibriums, acid base reactions. solubility product. solubility of gases in
water, the carbonate system, unsaturated and
saturated hydrocarbons radio nuclides.
Chemical composition of Air : Classification
of elements chemical speciation Particles irons and radicals
in the atmosphere. Chemical processes for formation of inorganic and organic
particulate matter. Thermo chemical and
photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. Oxygen and ozone chemistry. Chemistry
of air pollutants. Photochemical smog.
Water Chemistry : Chemistry
of water concept of DO BOD COD. sedimentation coagulation filtration
Red ox potential.
Soil Chemistry : Inorganic
and organic components of soil Nitrogen pathways and NPK in soils.
Toxic Chemicals in the environment-Air, Water : Pesticides
in water Biochemical aspects of Arsenic
Cadmium Lead Mercury Carbon Monoxide O3
and PAN Pesticides Insecticides MIC carcinogens
in the air.
Principles of Analytical Methods : Titrimetry
Gravimetry Colourimetry Spectrophotometer
Chromatography Gas Chromatography Atomic Absorption
Spectrophotometer. GLC HPLC Electrophoresis.
X-ray fluorescence X-ray diffraction Flame photometry.
Definition Principles and scope of ecology. Human ecology and
Human settlement Evolution Origin of life
Ecosystems : Structure
and functions Abiotic and Biotic components energy flows Food chains Food
web Ecological pyramids types and diversity. Ecological
Succession Population Community ecology and Parasitism Prey predator
Common flora and fauna in India
Aquatic : Phytoplankton
zooplankton and Macrophytes
Terrestrial : Forests
Endangered and Threatened Species
Biodiversity and its conservation : Definition
‘Hotspots’ of Biodiversity Strategies for Biodiversity conservation
National Parks and Sanctuaries Gene pool.
Micro flora of Atmosphere : Air
Sampling techniques Identification of aeroallergens Air-borne diseases
Environmental Biotechnology : Fermentation
Technology Vermiculture technology Biofertilizer technology.
The earth systems and Biosphere : Conservation
of matter in various geospheres-lithosphere hydrosphere
atmosphere and biosphere Energy budget of the earth. Earth’s thermal
environment and seasons. Ecosystems flow of
energy and matter. Coexistence in communities-food webs.. Earth’s major
ecosystems-terrestrial and aquatic. General relationship between landscape
biomes and climate. Climates of India.
Indian Monsoon El Nino Droughts Tropical cyclones and Western Disturbances.
Earth’s Processes and Geological Hazards : Earth’s
processes; concept to residence time and rates
of natural cycles. Catastrophic geological hazards Study of floods landslides
earthquakes volcanism and avalanche.
Prediction and perception of the hazards and adjustments to hazardous activities.
Mineral Resources and Environment : Resources
and Reserves Minerals and Population. Occeans
as new areas for exploration of mineral resources. Ocean ore and recycling of
resources. Environmental impact of
exploitation processing and smelting of minerals.
Water Resources and Environment : Global
Water Balance Ice sheets and fluctuations of sea levels.
Origin and composition of seawater. Hydrological cycle Factors influencing the
surface water. Types of water Resources of
oceans Ocean pollution by toxic wastes. Human use of surface and groundwater.
Land use Planning : The land use
plan Soil surveys in relation to land use planning Methods of site selection
Environmental Geochemistry : Concept
of major trace and REE Classification of trace elements. Mobility
of trace elements. Geochemical cycles Biogeochemical factors in environmental
health. Human use trace elements and health.
possible effects of imbalance of some trace elements. Diseases induced
by human use of land. Principles of Remote
sensing and its application of Environmental Sciences Application of GIS in
Sun as source of energy : solar radiation and its spectral
characteristics : Fossil fuels-classification. composition
physico-chemical characteristics and energy content of coal petroleum and
natural gas. Principles of generation of hydroelectric
power, tidal, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion wind geothermal
energy solar collectors photovoltaic solar ponds: nuclear energy-fission and
fusion: magnetro hudrodynamic power
bio-energy-energy from biomass and biogas, anaerobic digestion: energy
use pattern in different parts of the world. Environmental
implication of energy use : CO2 emissions
global warming: air and thermal pollution: radioactive
waste and radioactivity from nuclear reactors impacts of large-scale
exploitation of Solar wind Hydro and Ocean
Air : Natural and
anthropogenic sources of pollution. primary and Secondary pollutants. Transport
and diffusion of pollutants. Gas laws governing the
behaviour of pollutants in the atmosphere Methods of
monitoring and control of air pollution SO2,
CO, SPM Effects of pollutants on human beings,
plants, animals, materials and on climate. Acid Rain Air Quality Standards.
Water : Types, sources
and consequences of water pollution. Physico-chemical and Bacteriological
sampling and analysis of water quality. Standards,
sewage and waste water treatment and recycling. Water
Soil : Physico-chemical
as bacteriological sampling as analysis of soil quality soil Pollution Control.
Industrial waste effluents and heavy metals their
interactions with soil components. Soil microorganisms and
their functions degradation of different insecticides fungicides and weedicides
in soil Different kinds of synthetic
fertilizers (NP & K) and their interactions with different components of
Noise : Sources of noise
pollution measurement of noise and Indices effect of meteorological parameters
on noise propagation. Noise exposure levels and
standards. Noise control and abatement measures. Impact
of noise on human health.
Marine : Sources of
marine pollution and control Criteria employed for disposal of pollutants in
marine system-coastal management. Radioactive
and Thermal Pollution.
Introduction to environmental impact analysis.
Environmental impact Statement and Environmental Management
EIA guidelines 1994, Notification
of Government of India.
Impact Assessment Methodologies.
Generalized approach to impact analysis.
Procedure for reviewing Environmental impact analysis and
Guidelines for Environmental audit.
Introduction to Environmental planning.
Base line information and predictions (land, water,
atmosphere, energy, etc.)
Restoration and rehabilitation technologies.
Land use policy for India.
Urban planning for India.
Rural planning and land use pattern.
Concept and strategies of sustainable development.
Environmental priorities in India and sustainable
Sources and generation of solid wastes, their characterization,
chemical composition and classification. Different
methods of disposal and management of solid wastes (Hospial Wastes and Hazardous
Wastes) Recycling of waste material. Waste
minimization technologies. Hazardous Wastes
Management and Handling Rules, 1989. Resource Management. Disaster Management
and Risk analysis. Environment
protection-issues and problems. International and National efforts for
Environment Protection. Provision of
Constitution of India regarding Environment (Article 48A and 58A). Environmental
Policy Resolution. Legislation, public Policy Strategies in Pollution Control.
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 amended 1991.
Forest Conservation Act, 1980. Indian Forests Act (Revised) 1982.
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 as amended by Amendment Act,
1987 and Rule 1982. Motor Vechile Act, 1988.
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
as amended up to 1988 and Rules 1975. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and
Rules 1986. Scheme
of labeling of environmentally friendly products (Ecomark), Public Liability
Insuramce Act,1991 and Rules 1991.
Basic elements and tools of statistical analysis; Probability,
sampling measurement and distribution of attributes;
Distribution-Normal. t and
Poisson and Binomial; Arithmetic. Geometric and Harmonic means;
moments; matrices, simultaneous linear equations; tests of hypothesis and
significance. Introduction to environmental
system analysis; Approaches to development of models; linear simple and
multiple regression models, validation and forecasting, Models of population
growth and interactions-Lotka-Volterra
model. Leslie’s matrix model, point source stream pollution model, box model,
Gaussian plume model.
Environmental Education and Awareness.
Environmental Ethics and Global imperatives.
Global Environmental problems-ozone depletion, global
warming and climatic change.
Current Environmental issue in India.
Context : Narmada Dam. Tehri Dam, Almetti Dam, Soil Erosion,
Formation and reclamation of User,
Alkaline and Saline Soil.
Waste lands and their reclamation.
Desertification and its control.
Vehicular pollution and urban air quality.
Depletion of Nature resources.
Biodiversity conservation and Agenda-21.
Waste disposal, recycling and power generation. Fly ash
Water Crises-Conservation of water.
Eutrophication and restoration of Indian lakes.
Rain water harvesting.
Wet lands conservation.
Epidemiological issues (e.g. Goitre, Fluorosis, Arsenic).
Sample Question: Paper-II
1. What is the most
abundant anion in river water ?
2. Which one of the
following places is likely to be affected by Chemical Weathering ?
(A) Thar Desert
(B) Tibetan Plateau
(C) Western Ghats
3. Night blindness in
children is due to deficiency of
(A) Vitamin A
(B) Vitamin C
(C) Vitamin B complex