CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS - 2008
UNIT -1: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS IN CHEMISTRY
and its nature, Dalton's atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and
compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and
accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws of
chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass,
percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and
UNIT-2: STATES OF MATTER
Classification of matter into solid,
liquid and gaseous states.
Measurable properties of gases; Gas
laws - Boyle's law, Charle's law, Graham's law of diffusion, Avogadro's law,
Dalton's law of partial pressure; Concept of Absolute scale of temperature;
Ideal gas equation, Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates); Concept of
average, root mean square and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation
from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor, van der Waals equation,
liquefaction of gases, critical constants.
of liquids - vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of
temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
Classification of solids: molecular,
ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids
(elementary idea); Bragg's Law and its applications, Unit cell and lattices,
packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving
unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; electrical, magnetic and
UNIT - 3: ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Discovery of sub-atomic particles
(electron, proton and neutron); Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their
limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; spectrum
of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom - its postulates, derivation of
the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different
orbits, limitations of Bohr's model; dual nature of matter, de-¬Broglie's
relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum
mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, ψ and
ψ 2, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions; Variation
of ψ and ψ 2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers
(principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their
significance; shapes of s, p and d - orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum
number; rules for filling electrons in orbitals – aufbau principle, Pauli's
exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra
stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
UNIT - 4: CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR
Kossel - Lewis approach to chemical
bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds,
factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Bonding: Concept of electronegativity,
Fajan's rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR)
theory and shapes of simple molecules.
mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence
bond theory - Its important features, concept of hybridization involving
s, p and d orbitals; Resonance.
Orbital Theory - Its important
features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and
pi-bonds, mo1ecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic
molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy. Elementary idea
of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.
UNIT - 5: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS
Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System
and surroundings, . extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types
law of thermodynamics - Concept of
work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity,
Hess's law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation,
combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration,
ioniz-ation and solution.
Second law of thermodynamics; Spontaneity
of processes; S ∆ of the universe and G ∆ of the system as criteria
for spontaneity, G ∆ ° (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium
UNIT- 6: SOLUTIONS
Different methods for expressing
concentration of solution - molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by
volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult's Law - Ideal and
non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure - composition plots for ideal and non-ideal
solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions - relative lowering of
vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and
osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties;
Abnormal value of molar mass, van't Hoff factor and its significance.
UNIT - 7: EQUILIBRIUM
Meaning of equilibrium, concept of
involving physical processes: Solid
-liquid, liquid - gas and solid - gas equilibria, Henry's law, general
characterics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
Equilibria involving chemical processes:
Law of chemical equilibrium,
equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of G
∆ and G ∆ ° in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium
concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier’s
principle. Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of
electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted - Lowry
and Lewis) and their ionization, acid - base equilibria (including multistage
ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion
effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly
soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions. .
: REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Electronic concepts of oxidation and
reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation
number, balancing of redox reactions. Eectrolytic and metallic conduction,
conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and
their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch's law and its applications.
Electrochemical cells - Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of
electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half -
cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement; Nemst
equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs'
energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its
UNIT-9 : CHEMICAL KINETICS
Rate of a chemical reaction, factors
affecting the rate of reactions ¬concentration, temperature, pressure and
catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions,
rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero
and first order reactions, their characteristics and half - lives, effect of
temperature on rate of reactions - Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its
calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).
UNIT-10 : SURFACE CHEMISTRY
Adsorption- Physisorption and
chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases
on solids - ¬Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from
Catalysis - Homogeneous
and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis
and its mechanism.
Colloidal state - distinction
among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids -
lyophilic, lyophobic; multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids
(micelles), preparation and properties of colloids - Tyndall effect, Brownian
movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and
SECTION - B
UNIT -11: CLASSIFICATON OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES
periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block
elements, periodic trends in properties of elements¬atomic and ionic radii,
ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and
UNIT -12: GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND
PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF METALS
Modes of occurrence of elements in
nature, minerals, ores; steps involved in the extraction of metals -
concentration, reduction (chemical. and electrolytic methods) and refining with
special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and
electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.
UNIT - 13: HYDROGEN
of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of
hydrogen; physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure,
preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Classification of hydrides
- ionic,covalent and interstitial; Hydrogen as a fuel.
UNIT - 14: s - BLOCK ELEMENTS (ALKALI
AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)
- 1 and 2 Elements
General introduction, electronic
configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of
elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal
relationships. Preparation and properties of some important compounds - sodium
carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate;
Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological
significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
UNIT - 15: p - BLOCK ELEMENTS
Group - 13 to Group 18 Elements
General Introduction: Electronic
configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements
across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in
study of the p – block elements
Group - 13
Preparation, properties and uses of
boron and aluminium; structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid,
diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.
Group - 14
Tendency for catenation; Structure,
properties and uses of allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride,
silicates, zeolites and silicones.
Group - 15
and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus;
Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia nitric acid, phosphine
and phosphorus halides, 3 5 (PCl , PCl ); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of
nitrogen and phosphorus.
Group - 16
properties, structures and uses of dioxygen and ozone; Allotropic forms of
sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphur dioxide,
sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of
Group - 17
properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic
nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and
oxoacids of halogens.
and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.
– 16: d – and f – BLOCK ELEMENTS
introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general
trends in properties of the first row transition elements - physical properties,
ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour,
magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation;
Preparation, properties and uses of 2 2 7 4 K Cr O andKMnO .
- Electronic configuration, oxidation
states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction. Actinoids - Electronic
configuration and oxidation states.
UNIT - 17: CO-ORDINATION COMPOUNDS
to co-ordination compounds, Werner's theory; ligands, co-ordination number,
denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds,
isomerism; Bonding ¬Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field
theory, colour and magnetic properties; importance of co-ordination compounds (inqualitative
analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).
- 18: ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
pollution - Atmospheric, water and
pollution - Tropospheric and
pollutants - Gaseous pollutants: Oxides
of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects
and prevention; Green house effect and Global warming; Acid rain;
pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes,
mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention.
pollution- Formation and breakdown of
ozone, depletion of ozone layer - its mechanism and effects.
Pollution - Major pollutants such as,
pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and
pollution - Major pollutants such as:
Pesticides (insecticides,. herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and
prevention. Strategies to control environmental pollution.
UNIT - 19: PURIFICATION AND
CHARACTERISATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
- Crystallization, sublimation,
distillation, differential extraction and chromatography - principles and their
analysis - Detection of nitrogen,
sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
analysis (basic principles only) -
Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.
of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic
UNIT - 20: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES OF
of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and p); Classification
of organic compounds based on functional groups: - C = C - , - C = C - and those
containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur, Homologous series; Isomerism
- structural and stereoisomerism. Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)
bond fission - Homolytic and
heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of
carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
displacement in a covalent bond - Inductive
effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
types of organic reactions - Substitution,
addition, elimination and rearrangement.
UNIT - 21: HYDROCARBONS
isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and
- Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman
projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
- Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of
electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides
(Markownikoff's and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis, oxidation, and polymerization.
- acidic character; addition of
hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; polymerization.
hydrocarbons - Nomenclature, benzene -
structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation,
nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence
of functional group in mono-substituted benzene.
UNIT - 22: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING
methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms
of substitution reactions. Uses/environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform,
freons and DDT.
- 23: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING OXYGEN
methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
PHENOLS AND ETHERS
Identification of primary, secondary
and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.
Acidic nature, electrophilic
substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer -
AND KETONES: Nature of carbonyl group; Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group,
relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as -
Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives),
Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity
of α - hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform
reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
strength and factors affecting it.
UNIT - 24: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING
methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
. Nomenclature, classification,
structure basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary
amines and their basic character.
Salts: Importance in synthetic organic
UNIT - 25: POLYMERS
introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization -
addition and condensation, copolymerization; Natural and synthetic rubber and
vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses
- polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.
UNIT - 26: BIOMOLECULES
introduction and importance of biomolecules.
- Classification: aldoses and ketoses;
monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), constituent monosaccharides of
oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose, maltose) and polysaccharides (starch,
- Elementary Idea of α - amino
acids, peptide bond, . polypeptides; proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and
quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
- Classification and functions.
ACIDS - Chemical constitution of DNA
and RNA. Biological functions of Nucleic acids.
UNIT - 27: CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE
in medicines - Analgesics,
tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs,
antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins - their meaning and common examples. .
in food - Preservatives, artificial
sweetening agents - common examples.
agents - Soaps and detergents,
- 28: PRINCIPLES RELATED TO PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY
of extra elements (N,S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the
following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde
and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds. Chemistry
involved in the preparation of the following:
compounds: Mohr's salt, potash alum.
compounds: Acetanilide, p-nitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform.
involved in the titrimetric exercises - Acids bases and the
use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs 4 KMnO , Mohr's salt vs 4 KMnO . Chemical
principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis: Cations
- Pb2+ , Cu2+, AI3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+ , Mg2+ , NH4+. Anions
– 2 2 2 3 4 2 3 CO , S , SO , NO , NO ,CI
, Br , I . − − − − − − −
Chemical principles involved in the following experiments:
1. Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4
Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base. .Preparation of
lyophilic and lyophobic sols.Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with
hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.