Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) Syllabus | Geology & Geophysics
Earth and planetary system; size, shape, internal structure and composition of the earth; atmosphere and greenhouse effect; isostasy; elements of seismology; continents and continental processes; physical oceanography; palaeomagnetism, continental drift plate tectonics, geothermal energy.
Weathering; soil formation; action of river, wind and glacier; oceans and oceanic features; earthquakes, volcanoes, orogeny and mountain building; elements of structural geology; crystallography; classification, composition and properties of minerals and rocks; engineering properties of rocks and soils, role of geology in the construction of engineering structures.
Processes of ore formation, occurrence and distribution of ores on land and on ocean floor; coal and petroleum resources in India; ground water geology including well hydraulics, geological time scale and geochronology; stratigraphic principles and stratigraphy of India; basics concepts of gravity, magnetic and electrical prospecting for ores and ground water.
Part – HA: Geology:
Crystal symmetry, forms, twinning; crystal chemistry; optical mineralogy, classification of minerals, diagnostic properties of rock minerals.
Mineralogy, structure, texture and classification of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock, their origin and evolution; application of thermodynamics; structure and petrology of sedimentary rocks; sedimentary processes and environments, sedimentary facies, basin studies; basement cover relationship; Primary and secondary structures; geometry and genesis of folds, faults, joints, unconformities, cleavage, schistosity and lineation; methods of projection. Tectonites and their significance; shear zone; superposed folding.
Morphology, classification and geological significance of important invertebrates, vertebrates, microfossils and palaeoflora; stratigraphic principles and Indian stratigraphy; geomorphic processes and agents; development and evolution of landforms; slope and drainage; processes on deep oceanic and near-shore regions; quantitative and applied geomorphology; air photo interpretation and remote sensing; chemical and optical properties of ore minerals; formation and localization of ore deposits; prospecting and exploration of economic minerals; coal and petroleum geology; origin and distribution of mineral and fuel deposits in India; ore dressing and mineral economics. Cosmic abundance; meteorites; geochemical evolution of the earth; geochemical cycles; distribution of major, minor and trace elements; isotope geochemistry; geochemistry of waters including solution equilibria and water rock interaction.
Engineering properties of rocks and soils; rocks as construction material; geology of dams, tunnels and excavation sites; natural hazards; the fly ash problem; ground water geology and exploration; water quality; impact of human activity; Remote sensing techniques for the interpretation of landforms and resource management.
Part – II
B: Geophysics The earth as a planet; different motions of the earth; gravity filed of the earth and its shape; geochronology; isostasy, seismology and interior of the earth; variation of density, velocity, pressure, temperature, electrical and magnetic properties inside the earth; earthquakes-causes and measurements; zonation and seismic hazards; geomagnetic field, palaeomagnetism; oceanic and continental lithosphere; plate tectonics; heat flow; upper and lower atmospheric phenomena.
Theories of scalar and vector potential fields; Laplace, Maxwell and Heimholtz equations for solution of different types of boundary value problems for Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates; Green’s theorem; Image theory; integral equations and conformal transformations in potential theory; Eikonal equation and ray theory. ‘G’ and ‘g’ units of measurement, density of rocks, gravimeters, preparation, analysis and interpretation of gravity maps; derivative maps, analytical continuation; gravity anomaly type curves; calculation of mass.
Earth’s magnetic field, units of measurement, magnetic susceptibility of rocks, magnetometers, corrections, preparation of magnetic maps, magnetic anomaly type curve, analytical continuation, interpretation and application; magnetic well logging.
Conduction of electricity through rocks, electrical conductivities of metals, metallic, non-metallic and rock forming minerals, D.C. resistivity units and methods of measurement, electrode configuration for sounding and profiling, application of filter theory, interpretation of resistivity field data, application; self potential origin, classification, field measurement, interpretation of induced polarization time frequency, phase domain; IP units and methods of measurement, interpretation and application; ground-water exploration.
Origin of electromagnetic field elliptic polarization, methods of measurement for different source-receiver configuration components in EM measurements, interpretation and applications; earth’s natural electromagnetic field, tellurics, magneto-tellurics; geomagnetic depth sounding principles, methods of measurement, processing of data and interpretation.
Seismic methods of prospecting: Reflection, refraction and CDP surveys; land and marine seismic sources, generation and propagation of elastic waves, velocity increasing with depth, geophones, hydrophones, recording instruments (DFS), digital formats, field layouts, seismic noises and noise profile analysis, optimum geophone grouping, noise cancellation by shot and geophone arrays, 2D and 3D seismic data acquisition and processing, CDP stacking charts, binning, filtering, dip-moveout, static and dynamic corrections, deconvolution, migration, signal processing, Fourier and Hilbert transforms, attribute analysis, bright and dim spots, seismic stratigraphy, high resolution seismics, VSP.
Principles and techniques of geophysical well-logging, SP, resistivity, induction, micro gamma ray, neutron, density, sonic, temperature, dip meter, caliper, nuclear magnetic, cement bond logging. Quantitative evaluation of formations from well logs; well hydraulics and application of geophysical methods for groundwater study; application of bore hole geophysics in ground water, mineral and oil exploration. Remote sensing techniques and application of remote sensing methods in geophysics.