IIST: ISAT 2012 Chemistry Syllabus
Basic Concepts of Chemistry: particulate nature of matter,
laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms
and molecules. atomic and molecular masses, molecular formula, stoichiometry.
Structure of Atom: atomic number, isotopes and isobars. different atomic models
and limitations, shells and sub-shells, dual nature of matter and light, de
Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, orbitals, quantum
numbers, shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion
principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half
filled and completely filled orbitals.
Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties :
periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements Chemical Bonding and
Molecular Structure: valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond
parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent
character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent
molecules, VSEPR theory, hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes
of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic
molecules Hydrogen: Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of
hydrogen and its compounds. s-Block Elements (Group 1 and Group 2 elements):
electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element
of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties and
in chemical reactivity, uses. preparation and properties of compounds of Na, Ca,
Mg and their biological importance.
p-Block Elements : general Introduction to p-Block Elements
Elements of Group 13, 14 15,16, 17and 18: electronic configuration, occurrence,
variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity,
anomalous properties of first element of the group. chemical and physical
properties of boron, aluminium, carbon, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorous, oxygen,
sulphur, halogens and important compounds of the elements. d and f Block
Elements : electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of
transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition
metals. General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements :
concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence
and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron. Lanthanides:
electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanide
Actinides: electronic configuration, oxidation states.
Coordination compounds: Ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic
properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds,
bonding; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds.
States of Matter : three states of matter, intermolecular
interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling points, molecular, ionic,
covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids, unit cell in two
dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell,
packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell,
point defects, electrical and magnetic properties. Boyle’s law, Charles’ law,
Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas
equation, Avogadro’s number, ideal gas equation, deviation from ideal behaviour,
liquefaction of gases, critical temperature. liquid State.
Solutions : types of solutions, solubility of gases in
liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour
pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic
pressure, determination of molecular masses
Thermodynamics : systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy,
extensive and intensive properties, state functions. first law of thermodynamics
– internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of
ΔU and ΔH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond
dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition,
ionization, and dilution. entropy as a state function, free energy change for
spontaneous and nonspontaneous process, equilibrium.
Equilibrium : equilibrium in physical and chemical processes,
dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors
affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium – onization
of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, concept
of pH. Hydrolysis of salts, buffer solutions, solubility product, common ion
effect. Redox Reactions : redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox
reactions, applications of redox reactions.
Electrochemistry : conductance in electrolytic solutions,
specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration,
Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis, dry cell – electrolytic
cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode
potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells;
Chemical Kinetics : rate of a reaction, factors affecting
rates of reaction, order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific
rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first
order reactions); concept of collision theory.
Surface Chemistry : physisorption and chemisorption; factors
affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis: homogenous and
heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state:
distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions, Tyndall effect,
Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions – types of emulsions.
Nuclear chemistry: radioactivity: isotopes and isobars; Properties of α, β, and
γ rays; Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating;
Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio; fission and fusion
Basic Principles and Techniques : methods of purification,
qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of
organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive
effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and
heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions;
electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
Hydrocarbons: Alkanes, alkenes and alkynes: nomenclature,
isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation. Conformations (ethane
only), structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, structure of
triple bond (ethyne), chemical reactions.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature;
Benzene: resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic
substitution, influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene.
Haloalkanes and haloarenes: nomenclature, nature of C-X bond,
physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions,
environmental effects of compounds
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers : Nomenclature, methods of
preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses. Identification of primary,
secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration. Acidic nature of
phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions.
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Aldehydes and Ketones:
Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and
chemical properties. Mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha
hydrogen in aldehydes, acidic nature of carboxylic acids.
Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen: Amines, cyanides,
isocyanaides and diazonium salts
OTHER TOPICS OF IMPORTANCE:
Environmental Chemistry : Environmental pollution : Air,
water and soil pollution, green chemistry, control of environmental pollution.
Biomolecules ; carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins,
Nucleic Acids Polymers : natural and synthetic polymers,
methods of polymerization, copolymerization. Polymers like polythene, nylon,
polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Chemistry in Everyday Life ; Chemicals in
medicines, chemicals in food, cleansing agents and action.