Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) Syllabus | Chemistry
Structure: Quantum theory – principles and techniques; applications to particle in a box, harmonic Dscillator, rigid rotor and hydrogen atom; valence bond and molecular orbital theories and Huckel approximation, approximate techniques: variation and perturbation; symmetry, point groups; rotational, /ibrational, electronic, NMR and ESR spectroscopy.
Equilibrium: First law of thermodynamics, heat, energy and work; second law of thermodynamics and sntropy; third law and absolute entropy; free energy; partial molar quantities; ideal and non-ideal solutions; )hase transformation: phase rule and phase diagrams- one, two, and three component systems; activity, activity coefficient, fugacity and fugacity coefficient; chemical equilibrium, response of chemical equilibrium o temperature and pressure; coiiigative properties; kinetic theory of gases; thermodynamics of aiectrochemical cells; standard electrode potentials: applications – corrosion and energy conversion; nolecular partition function (translational, rotational, vibrational and electronic).
Cinetics: Rates of chemical reactions, theories of reaction rates, collision and transition state theory; emperature dependence of chemical reactions; elementary reactions, consecutive elementary reactions; steady state approximation, kinetics of photochemical reactions and free radical polymerization, lomogenous and heterogeneous catalysis.
‘Jon-Transition Elements: General characteristics, structure and reactions of simple and industrially important compounds, boranes, carboranes, silicates, silicones, diamond and graphite; hydrides, oxides and )xoacids of N, P, S and halogens; boron nitride, borazines and phosphazenes; xenon compounds. Shapes )f molecules, hard-soft acid base concept.
Ransition Elements: General characteristics of d and f block elements; coordination chemistry: structure md isomerism, stability, theories of metal-ligand bonding (CFT and LFT), electronic spectra and magnetic >roperties of transition metal complexes and lanthanides; metal carbonyls, metal-metal bonds and metal itom clusters, metallocenes; transition metal complexes with bonds to hydrogen, alkyls, alkenes, and arenes; metal carbenes; use of organometallic compounds as catalysts in organic synthesis; mechanisms of substitution and electron transfer reactions of coordination complexes. Role of metals with special reference to Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Co, Zn, and Mo in biological systems.
Solids: Crystal systems and lattices, Miller planes, crystal packing, crystal defects; Bragg’s Law; ionic crystals, band theory, metals and semiconductors. Spinels.
Instrumental methods of analysis: atomic absorption, UV-visible spectrometry, chromatographic .-and electro-analytical methods.
Synthesis, reactions and mechanisms involving the following: Alkenes, alkynes, arenes, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives; halides, nitro compounds and amines; stereochemical and conformational effects on reactivity and specificity; reactions with diborane and peracids. Michael reaction, Robinson annulation, reactivity umpolung, acyl anion equivalents; molecular rearrangements involving electron deficient atoms.
Photochemistry: Basic principles, photochemistry of olefins, carbonyl compounds, arenes, photo oxidation and reduction.
Pericyclic reactions: Cycloadditions, electrocyclic reactions, sigmatropic reactions; Woodward-Hoffmann rules.
Heterocycles: Structural properties and reactions of furan, pyrrole, thiophene, pyridine, indole.
Biomolecules: Structure, properties and reactions of mono- and di-saccharides, physico-chemical properties of amino acids, structural features of proteins and nucleic acids.
Spectroscopy: Principles and applications of IR, UV-visible, NMR and mass spectrometry in the determination of structures of organic compounds.